- Theory
- TASKS
- 3.1 Time measurement (sundials, hourglass)
- 3.2 Phases of the Moon
- 3.3 A calendar
- 3.4 Orientation in the countryside
- 3.5 Models of planets and the Sun
- Task 1: Count the dimensions of the bodies and their distances in your model
- Task 2: Make a model of the solar system using foods of a round shape
- Task 3: Make a model of the solar system from the newspaper and starch.
- Task 4: Model of the Sun
- Task 5: Model of a comet
- Task 6: Create a comet nucleus model with a similar composition as a real comet
- Task 7: Make a comet nucleus model that you can enjoy eating

- 3.6 Orientation in the sky

- WORKSHEETS FOR PUPILS

# Task 1: Drawing of a constellation

## List of equipment needed for pairs of pupils:

- Drawings of constellations (for example the Ursa Minor, the Cygnus, the Aquila, the Delphinus).
- A sheet of paper with the brightest stars marked
- A pencil

## List of practical (research) activities:

**Description – a brief summary:**

The goal of the activity is to acquaint pupils with different constellation patterns and their similarities with known shapes.

## Description – individual sections of the lessons

Work content | Time | Material and equipment needed | Teacher’s activity | Pupils’ activity | |

Introduction to topic – motivation |
What is a constellation? | 10 minutes |
A notebook for recording the findings, a pencil |
Describes constellations, their significance for orientation in the sky. He/she manages and assesses pupils’ activities. |
In the form of group work, pupils estimate the significance of the constellations |

Pre-laboratory preparation |
Dividing pupils into groups, motivation, formulation of the target, assessment, a worksheet. |
10 minutes |
A notebook for recording the findings, a pencil |
Divides pupils into groups, motivation, formulates the target, introduces the assessment criteria to pupils, distributes the worksheets, and supervises pupils when working. |
Presentation of constellations, they complete the worksheet with tasks, they cooperate within the group, and ask the teacher questions. |

Practical (research) activity |
Drawing of the constellation pattern. |
20 minutes |
A notebook for recording the findings, a pencil |
Pays attention to pupils. | Pupils make a constellation model according to the pattern of a constellation and distances of individual stars. |

Evaluation of lessons |
Summary, advantages and disadvantages of constellations, presentations |
5 minutes |
None |
Controlled discussion with pupils. |
Disadvantages of orientation in the sky with the help of constellations |

## Preparation of the teacher:

**Description of the activity**

- Brief information on constellations. (10 minutes)

Equipment: a notebook, a pencil

The teacher informs pupils about constellations. - Presentation of constellations (the Great Bear – the part of the Big Dipper will suffice, Orion, Cassiopeia). (10 minutes)

Equipment: pictures of constellations, distances to the stars (for example the Great Bear, or the Big Dipper will suffice, Orion, Cassiopeia) - Making of the constellation model (65 minutes)

Pupils make a pad from polystyrene (or Plasticine) and according to a table they stick the skewers with beads into the polystyrene in the correct places (the beads are fixed to the skewers with, for example, Plasticine). Pupils then observe the constellation model from different angles. It is possible to make even bigger model, for example in the school garden - Discussion with pupils about the constellation’s model. (5 minutes)