Interdependence of organisms

In addition to providing energy within the food chain, the relationship of organisms also manifests in the level of coexistence, respectively mutual use of organisms not only in the form of food, but also in the way of their life. Plants and animals interact with each other in the environment. They also interact with the environment itself.


Plants represent a source of oxygen (in the process of photosynthesis) and a source of energy for first order consumers. In addition, they provide an animal environment that is a shelter for them. They also provide building material for building shelters (eg, a nest of birds), providing protection during hot or windy days. The roots of the plants strengthen the ground surface, preventing soil erosion.

People use plants for different purposes. Their primary use is as a food source. Furthermore, plants provide material for the manufacture of fabrics from which clothing and footwear are made. Plants are further use in the form of fuel – wood, coal, gases, etc. Plants are also used by people to produce dyes, medicines and cosmetics.

Fruits and vegetables in which seeds can be found are the primary source of plant food. However, in this case, not all fruits and vegetables we consume are classified as fruits. In some cases it may be the root (e.g. carrots, parsley, horseradish, chickpeas), coarse leaves (e.g. garlic bulbs) ), coarse stems (e.g. kohlrabi), tubers (e.g. potato), leaves (spinach).

Plants vs. animals

Plants need animals to help spread the seeds. The seeds can be found inside the fruit. The fruits have bright colors that attract animals such as birds and mammals. In addition, they contain the necessary nutrients. After the fruit has been eaten, the seeds will be scattered by peeling them from the fruit, eating the flesh and discarding the seed. Some fruits are consumed by the animal along with the seed, which is then distributed through the feces. Some animals (e.g. squirrels) keep food for winter. Every seed forgotten by the animal has the opportunity to germinate.

Some fruits and seeds have special mechanisms (bristles, hooks) that allow them to attach to the animal‘s hair and so they can be transported to new places. Another aid for plants includes insect pollination of flowers, e.g. bees. Earthworms, in turn, aerate the soil so that the roots of plants can get oxygen better.