In obtaining energy for life, it is also important to clarify the respiration process. Both the autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms in the process of respiration in the mitochondria of the cells acquire the energy in the usable form required for their own metabolism, movement, growth, etc.. It is a catabolic reaction in which energy is converted from received organic substances into energy-rich bonds (e.g. ATP).

Energy can be released from organic matter in two ways:

1. by anaerobic process: does not require oxygen.

2. by aerobic process: in the presence of oxygen.

Plant respiration

Plant respiration – transforms light energy into the energy of chemical bonds in organic compounds (e.g. starch or glucose). To obtain energy from these compounds, a plant must decompose chemical bonds. This release of accumulated energy does not take place at the same time, but proceeds gradually through a series of reactions in the process of disimilization. Thus, respiration is a complex of catabolic processes by which a plant releases energy from organic compounds. This energy is consumed in synthetic processes, nutrient uptake, growth and the like. In the process of recovering energy from organic compounds, plants use oxygen, with the end product being ATP, carbon dioxide and water:

The breathing process requires the presence of oxygen, which the plant receives through the entire body surface

Respiration of animals

Respiration of animals – during respiration process there is a gas exchange between the organism and the environment (oxygen uptake and transfer of carbon dioxide). But why is respiration important? Oxygen is an essential part of biochemical processes that provide essential vital functions. During the metabolism (oxidation), carbon dioxide is produced in the cells as a waste product.

The process of respiration in animals varies depending on the particular species and the degree of its development. Oxygen can be absorbed either by the entire body surface (earthworm) or by the respiratory organs (air bladders – insects, pulmonary sacs – spiders, gills – fish, lungs – terrestrial vertebrates including humans).